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October 4th, 2017 by admin

L2SPS traduction 1

Voici une proposition de traduction :

WHO to test antimalarial vaccine in Africa

Mosquirix, which will be tested between 2018 and 2020 does not provide full protection against the plasmodium parasite, but it reduces the number of episodes of malaria.

Kenya, Ghana and Malawi are the three African countries chosen by the World Health Organization to test the antimalarial vaccine called Mosquirix, a UN special agency announced on Monday April 24th.

The WHO aims to vaccinate at least 360 000 children between 2018 and 2020.  Africa is by far the continent with the highest incidence of malaria, representing 92% of the 429 000 deaths from this mosquito-borne disease throughout the world in 2015, according to WHO figures.  Children under 5 make up two-thirds of these deaths.

Developed by a partnership between GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and the NGO Path Malaria Vaccine Initiative, the vaccine, which is the most advanced against Malaria remains of limited effectiveness.  When combined with diagnostic methods, treatment and tried-and-tested preventive measures, such as mosquito nets treated with mosquito repellents, “the vaccine could save tens of thousands of lives in Africa” in the opinion of Matshidiso Moeti, WHO director for Africa.

Reduce episodes by 40%

In particular, the pilot project should allow them to evaluate the effectiveness of the vaccine “in a context of day-to-day use” as well as any possible logistical hurdles, according to Mrs Moeti.  It will be a question of raising the awareness of parents about a new program of vaccinations which differs from the traditional child vaccination program (DTP, measles etc.)  Four doses of the vaccine need to be administered when the child is aged 5 months, 6 months, 7 months and two years old.

Mosquirix, which was approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in July 2015, does not completely prevent infection by the Plasmodium parasite which causes the disease.  It reduces the number of malaria episodes by 40% over a period of at least four and a half years, according to studies carried out on 15000 people between 2009 and 2014.

The program is part of the efforts introduced since the 1990s to eradicate malaria. Between 2000 and 2015, the number of deaths from this disease fell by 62%.  The WHO hopes to have eliminated the disease by 2040.

 

March 22nd, 2017 by admin

L2 – Pilot review preparation

Next week (March 29) you will view a pilot episode of a series, and you will have to write a review of what you have seen.

In order to get an idea of how to approach this task, here are a few links to reviews from newspapers and internet sites :

Beyond (Variety.com)

Preacher (Forbes.com)

Travelers (nerdbastards.com)

Westworld (harpersbazaar.com)

Other examples can be found on this page

December 14th, 2016 by admin

Traduction corrigé

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Augmented reality; coming soon to a theatre near you

“In ten years’ time we will wonder how we were able to operate without 3D imaging and augmented reality,” said Patrick Pessaux, a surgeon at the university teaching hospital of Strasbourg.

For the surgeon, the advantage of these emerging techniques is two-fold.  Firstly, the day before the operation doctors will be able to explain the details of the intervention to the patient using a tablet computer.  “This educational and entertaining approach tends to reassure them” the specialist stated.

Secondly, 3D visualization of an anomaly beforehand allows the surgeon to define his movements and aim directly thus lowering the risk of side effects.  “When we aim for the gallbladder, in 0.5% of cases the bile duct, which leads from the liver to the intestine, is impacted, causing injury.  Augmented reality allows us to visualize this duct which is hidden beneath fat, and thereby avoid it.”

A clinical trial on gall bladder removals (100 000 operations each year in France) in 60 patients has just concluded in Strasbourg.  The data are being analyzed.  “It is a world first.  We are going to identify in how many of the sixty patients augmented reality enabled us to find the right structure”, Patrick Pessoux explained.

Even if augmented reality provides more accurate diagnosis, helps to prepare operations, and informs patients, it hasn’t yet arrived in operating theaters.  At present, navigation allows surgical guidance during an operation. We will still have to wait for a few years for these innovations, which are currently in research and development, to finally enter the operating room.

 

November 9th, 2016 by admin

L2: traduction 3 – proposition de traduction

Is 100 days without meat good for our health?

Aline Perraudin, editor of “Santé Magazine” and author of “100 days without meat” set herself the challenge of eating no meat for 100 days.  Even though the journalist made the choice for ethical reasons, because she could no longer stand the scandals over animal slaughter for example, is it possible that this decision was good for her health?

“Many studies have compared the health of vegetarians and meat-eaters,” GP Dr Martine Perez told Europe 1.  “The results show that vegetarians generally have fewer cancers.”  But these conclusions should be taken with precaution.   First and foremost, because certain types of cancer, such as colon cancer are just as common in non meat-eaters as in others.  Finally, the decrease in risk of cancer is not necessarily linked to dietary habits.  “If vegetarians have fewer cancers, it is because over all they are health conscious,” Dr Perez stated.  So, they have fewer lung cancers because they are less likely to smoke than the rest of the population.

Other studies have been carried out on cardiovascular diseases.  Here again it is difficult to associate lower prevalence in vegetarians with diet.  Dr Perez added that “vegetarians are also a little less frequently diabetic and less obese.”  But an Austrian study has upset the cart, coming to the conclusion that vegetarians had more allergies than meat-eaters, and were more depressed.  Aline Perraudin, for her part, believes that going meat-free has enabled her to eat a more balanced diet.  “Initially, you feel like there are only side dishes left”, she told Europe 1.  “At the end, I felt as though I was doing myself good.  Eating a vegetable-based diet eased my conscience.” The journalist ate a more balanced diet, “tofu doesn’t need chips”.   Indeed, besides meat, what people eat with it disrupts a balanced diet, and thus their health.  “People who eat meat, eat more chips, and more fat, and drink more wine” concluded Dr Perez.

The question remains as to what (nutritional) deficiencies a vegetarian diet can cause.  For nutritionist Jean-Michel Cohen it is nevertheless possible to compensate for the proteins, iron and vitamin B12 contained in meat.  “We can get iron from chocolate, wholemeal bread or wheat bran.”  Vitamin B12 on the other hand is difficult to find in other foods besides fish.  If fish is also being avoided, taking dietary supplements is advised.

 

October 19th, 2016 by admin

L2 – Traduction 2: suggestion de corrigé

A Blood Test to Detect Cancer

It is a revolutionary discovery.  French oncologist Patrizia Paterlini-Bréchot at the Necker Children’s University Teaching Hospital has developed a blood test which detects all cancers at an early stage.

French health minister Marisol Touraine regards this new test as the ‘promise of a major shift in cancer treatment because it is particularly simple to use, and therefore easy to implement on a larger scale’.

This technical feat, achieved by Patrizia Paterlini-Bréchot, a professor of cellular biology and oncologie at the Necker Children’s University Teaching Hospital (University of Paris-Descartes) consists in detecting the cancerous invasion at the very beginning of the disease. ‘Thanks to tests on animals, we knew that these (cancerous) cells are present in the blood for years before the appearance of metastases, and patients die because of these metastases, not because of the initial tumor.  Just as the AIDS virus does, these cells mutate, and because of this have time to become more and more resistant,’ said the researcher.

After seven years of research, a large box has been produced in which the tests called ISET (Isolation by Size of Tumor cells) can be carried out.  This test can detect the presence of these tumor cells which are larger than blood cells among the 5 billion red blood cells and 100 billion white blood cells in 10ml of blood.

The efficiency of the test has been proven by the results obtained at the university teaching hospital in Nice, where a cohort of at-risk patients (heavy smokers with pulmonary disease) was followed for 6 years.  Thanks to the test, researchers detected tumor cells in the blood of five patients well before the lung cancer was visible on an x-ray.  The patients underwent an operation, and were cured of this most lethal of cancers.

When the tumor cells are identified in the blood, specific medical imaging examinations are required to screen for the tumor, she explained. Based on your predispositions and your medical history, we begin for example with the breast in a woman and the prostate in a man, and scan the whole body if we do not find it.  In the future it should be possible to identify the organ from which the tumor cells come and thereby save time.  Proteins found in the cancer cells will indicate in which organ they originated.

It will also be possible to use this test for patients who are in remission in order to verify that the cancer has not returned, and allow oncologists to change and adapt treatments for diagnosed patients.  The test has recently come onto the market, costs 486€ and is not reimbursed by social security.  Even if it is not useful for everyone, and not widely available, it seems that this major discovery, if developed on a larger scale, will increase life expectancy in mankind.  Worldwide, 15 million cases of cancer occur every year.

 

September 28th, 2016 by admin

L2 Traduction 1 – suggestion de corrigé

Europe to take a second look at the effects of BPA on health

In early 2015 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) posed no risk to consumers’ health.

On April 26th 2016 the EFSA announced that they would review the effects of BPA on the immune system in 2017-2018, to take into account recent studies which had pointed out the risks if this chemical substance for children and fetuses.  Despite calls to prohibit this substance, which is thought to be an endocrine disruptor, and has been banned for use in feeding bottles in Europe since 2011, the EFSA stated that exposure to BPA did not present “any risk for consumer health”.  This decision led to France being out of step, just as they were introducing a blanket ban on all food recipients containing this antioxidant and plasticizer.

Dutch Pressure

However, the EFSA announced on April 26th that they were setting up a “workgroup consisting of international experts, to evaluate new scientific elements regarding the potential effects of BPA on the immune system”. The new data come from a report published by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health, which analyzed two studies on prenatal and perinatal effects of BPS on the immune system.  The report “recommends that research on alternatives to BPA be promoted and that consumers be advised to reduce their exposure,” according to the EFSA. At the request of the Netherlands, the European agency has decided to “specifically examine the toxicity of BPA for the immune system in the light of these new findings.” “The studies had not yet been published” when the EFSA issued its previous evaluation of the risks of BPA, they stated.

At the beginning of 2015, the European agency recommended dividing the safety threshold for human exposure to this substance by twelve.  Nevertheless, real human exposure to BPA, which can notably be found in till receipts is “three to five times lower” than the new threshold, and is regarded as “without danger”, they said.  The agency had identified “doubts about BPA’s potential impact on the health of the mammary gland as well as the reproductive, metabolic neuro-behavioural and immune systems.” These effects, in addition to a possible implication in the development of cancer, “are regarded as unlikely, but cannot be rejected,” they added.  France took a critical view, with the French ecology minister, Segolène Royal, questioning “the influence of lobbies” on the publication by the EFSA, an agency that was founded in 2002 after a series of food scares.

 

 

April 20th, 2016 by admin

L2 – TV Review preparation

Next week you will be asked to write a review of a pilot episode.  Your work will count towards your final mark for the semester.

Here are some examples of newspaper reviews of pilot episodes to give you an idea of how to approach the exercise.

November 25th, 2015 by admin

L2 SPS – Traduction 3

Doubt cast over the effectiveness of e-cigarettes for stopping smoking

A group of 16 American experts claims that there is no evidence that electronic cigarettes can be recommended as a way to quit smoking.

Tobacco kills half of those who smoke it, and accounts for almost 6 million deaths per year worldwide.  Anything goes when it comes to quitting: nicotine substitutes (patches, gum, tablets, inhalers), drugs, behavioral and cognitive thearapy, or even alternative medicine.  ”But what about e-cigarettes?” you might ask.  The 16 experts on the US Preventive Service Task Force, an American group working on prevention in public health, will tell you that there isn’t enough evidence to show that these devices are effective for stopping smoking.

American Guidelines

The experts came to this conclusion after analysing the results of over fifty studies about the effectiveness of the various methods for smoking cessation.  They published their synthesis a few days ago as a set of recommendations for health professionals.  In it the scientists stress the lack of proof concerning the effects of e-cigarettes and do not recommend their use.

“There are hundreds of studies on the subject, but only 3 are randomized, and therefore the most reliable.” explained Jean-François Etter, a professor of Public Health at the University of Geneva.  ”In a randomized study patients are randomly assigned to one of two identical groups, and in just one of them electronic cigarettes are used.  This allows us to prove causality between e-cigarette smoking and cessation.”

In their view, only two methods are effective for curing addiction to smoking.  The first is medication, using varenicline (commercially sold as Chantix or Champix), buproprion (an antidepressant called Zyban) or nicotine substitutes.  The second is cognitive and behavioral therapy, whch is recommended in particular for pregnant women as a way to avoid the possible side effects of medication on foetal development.

In France

The French tobacco addiction prevention service (Office français de prévention du tabagisme, or OFT) has noted that the commercial success of e-cigarettes coincides with a fall in cigarette sales (-7.6% at the end of 2013) and a reduction in the use of traditional methods of giving up.  In a statement published last year the OFT states that “e-cigarettes are a lot less harmful than traditional cigarettes” and that “replacing tobacco smoking with e-cigarettes can reduce health risks”.  Since 2014 the national health authority has also been recommending to doctors not to discourage the use of e-cigarettes for people who wish to give up smoking.

Despite the prudence of the authorities, the e-cigarette is viewed by many smokers as an alternative to tobacco.  A study of 15000 people carried out in 2014 by the national institute for health prevention and education showed that more than 80% of vapers said that e-cigarettes had enabled them to reduce their tobacco consumption, on average by 9 cigarettes each day.