l.georges online

work ‘n’ shit

Archive for the ‘Students’ Category

March 9th, 2018 by admin

Cohort studies – documents

Document 1 (png image) 


Document 2 (pdf)  biasInCohort&CCStudies

La référence de l’article d’où proviennent ces documents est :

Gamble JM. An introduction to the fundamentals of cohort and case–control studies. Can J Hosp Pharm. 2014;67(5):366-72.

March 2nd, 2018 by admin

Skin Aging Q&A

Here is a document containing this week’s questions and answers.

See you next week for a new article.

January 10th, 2018 by admin

L2 Translation test

Voici une traduction pour le texte du contrôle du 13 décembre :

It’s bad news for tall people.  According to scientists from the University of Lund in Sweden, tall people have a higher risk of getting blood clots.  In a study carried out on more than two million brothers and sisters, they observed a lower risk for clotting in men and women smaller than 160cm and 155cm respectively.  The overall risk was reduced by 60 percent compared to subjects taller than 185cm.  The authors stated that “height is an independent indicator of venous thromboembolism.”

A blood clot can partially or totally block a major vein in the legs or thighs and cause phlebitis.  Superficial phlebitis (when the circulation is blocked in a small vein, leading to pain and discomfort) is not serious in itself, but is a risk factor for deep phlebitis, and the latter is an emergency because the clot which is blocking the blood flow in a deep or large calibre vein can break loose and migrate into the circulation and cause a pulmonary embolism (when the clot lodges itself in the pulmonary artery), and this is a serious and potentially fatal accident.  Among the warning signs in cases of phlebitis are: a red, warm, or hard vein, or one whose relief makes it clearly visible on the surface.  It is also painful or sensitive to touch.


December 6th, 2017 by admin

L2 : NHS news quiz answers

  1. How much weight should people lose to defeat type 2 diabetes?  15kg
  2. At what time does dim-light melatonin onset generally begin?   8 pm
  3. What is becoming more common in the over 50s?  HIV infection
  4. How many countries in Europe have “eliminated” measles? 33
  5. Researchers in Spain linked atherosclerosis with what?  Skipping breakfast
  6. What has been linked to substance abuse in teenagers?  Vegetarian diet in pregnancy
  7. What percentage of children in the UK are thought to be obese?  10%
  8. According to one study how should pregnant women not sleep?  On their back
  9. Psilocybin helped 19 patients with what?  Depression
  10. Who should you call in the UK if you are thinking about self-harming?  The Samaritans
  11. Mushrooms make you feel fuller than what according to a US study?  Minced beef
  12. The Daily Mail said there are how many ‘breast cancer genes’?  180
  13. Loughorough university researchers believe that what might lower the risk of dementia?  Marriage
  14. How do US researchers aim to evaluate the risk of dementia?  Blood test in Middle age
  15. Night-time eating might lead to what?  Heart disease
  16. What type of wounds heal faster?  Daytime
  17. The BBC reported that Scottish researchers have found that what is bad for children?    Grandparents
  18. What might prevent rheumatoid arthritis?  Vit D
  19. How many cups of coffee per day can bring health benefits?  3-4
  20. What childhood disease has returned to the UK?    Scarlet Fever


November 29th, 2017 by admin

Document de présentation


November 28th, 2017 by admin

Examen de rattrapage 2018 A1 et A2

Merci de bien vouloir noter que l’examen de rattrapage aura lieu le

29 août 2018 de 9h à 12h en salle ED10

Faites le nécessaire pour ne pas devoir y aller !

November 22nd, 2017 by admin

L2 – Traduction 3

Energy drinks could weaken the heart

Energy drinks have been around for a few decades, but have really taken off in recent years.  As their name suggests they give a boost of energy, usually due to several psychoactive substances they contain which improve attention and concentration and reduce the feeling of tiredness.  They are not the same thing as sports energy drinks which contain nutritional substances vital for sports performance.

For a while now, public health authorities have been concerned about the effects of excessive consumption of some of the substances in energy drinks, including caffeine and taurine which, in high doses, might lead to heart problems or anxiety.

One by one, institutions are condemning the dangers of excessive consumption of this sort of drink, in particular when they are consumed with alcohol.  Now a team from Friedrich Wilhelm University in Bonn have presented their work at the annual congress of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) in which they demonstrate the effects of a single drink on the heart.

Lower contractile function after one energy drink

“Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a link between the consumption of energy drinks and heart problems,” said Jonas Dörner, director of the study.  “But none has shown the effects they have on heart function.”  So he and his team undertook this job.  Thanks to MRI the scientists were able to observe cardiac function in 15 healthy participants aged 27 ½ on average.  They took images of the heart before and one hour after absorption of an energy drink containing 400mg/100ml of taurine, and 32mg/100ml of caffeine.

When they looked at the images of the heart, the study’s authors observed increased cardiac tension in the left ventricle after consumption of the energy drink.  This part of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and sends it into the aorta which then distributes it to the rest of the body.  However, the researchers did not note any difference in heart rate, blood pressure, nor in the rate of blood pumped by the left ventricle.  In contrast, the heart showed lower contractile function after consumption of the beverage.

“Additional studies are now needed to understand the mechanism and to determine how long it lasts,” the researcher said.  “We also want to evaluate the effect of regular consumption of these energy drinks on heart function.” For the present, the study’s authors recommend that children and the frail abstain from consuming such products.



October 25th, 2017 by admin

Translation 2

Diabetes and endocrine disruptors: beware of chemical pollutants

Many studies have pointed to the role that some chemical products, like bisphenol A (BPA), dioxins and phthalates, play in the rapid increase in the number of people with diabetes.

It all began with diethylstilbestrol, a drug given to pregnant women up until the middle of the seventies, which caused malformations and cancer in some children.  Less well-known is the fact that people exposed in their mothers’ wombs also developed diabetes as adults twice more than average.

Since the worldwide type 2 diabetes epidemic seems difficult to explain by genetics, which have not evolved quickly enough, or by changes in lifestyle (physical inactivity, unbalanced diet) it raised suspicion.  To find out more, researchers carried out laboratory experiments.

They observed that by when they gave very small doses of diethylstilbestrol or BPA of pregnant rats or mice, their offspring became obese then diabetic.  The same thing happened with pesticides like DDT, dioxins or some phthalates, the molecules which are found in plastics.  What these products have in common is that they affect the way hormones work (which is why they are called endocrine disruptors), but they also interfere with the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.

As far as humans are concerned, other studies have increased our suspicions.  First of all there are the consequences of accidental exposure, such as the explosion of a factory in Seveso in Italy in 1976 which produced a giant cloud of dioxins: girls who were contaminated had diabetes three times more frequently than the rest of the population when they were adults.

But the most tangible results come from longitudinal studies from the USA, Canada or Scandinavia, where those most exposed to endocrine disruptors in the past were also those who had most often ended up with metabolic disorders and diabetes.

Beware of these chemical pollutants.  It cannot be denied that they have “obesogenic” or “diabetogenic” properties.  Discussions are being held at European level to limit their use and people’s exposure to them.

Meanwhile, pregnant women at least should take precautions: avoid tins and cans, which are all lined with BPA, as are containers and plastic films in microwave ovens, choose organic food whenever possible, don’t repaint the nursery, and avoid handling pesticides during pregnancy.