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November 29th, 2017 by admin

Document de présentation


November 28th, 2017 by admin

Examen de rattrapage 2018 A1 et A2

Merci de bien vouloir noter que l’examen de rattrapage aura lieu le

29 août 2018 de 9h à 12h en salle ED10

Faites le nécessaire pour ne pas devoir y aller !

November 24th, 2017 by admin

Abstract Article 1

Voici une proposition d’abstract structuré pour l’article : Bawden, Stephen, et al. “Increased liver fat and glycogen stores after consumption of high versus low glycaemic index food: A randomized crossover study.” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 19.1 (2017): 70-77.


L’indice glycémique des aliments consommés influence potentiellement le stockage de glycogène et la graisse hépatique.  L’objectif de l’étude était de mesurer ces effets immédiatement après la consommation des aliments et à plus long terme


Huit volontaires masculins ont subi des examens avant et après avoir suivi pendant 7 jours un régime à indice glycémique élevé IGE ou bas IGB et dont les contenus en macronutrients et calories étaient identiques.  Après une période de quatre semaines minimum sans suivre de régime, les participants ont refait la même chose mais en suivant l’autre régime.  Pendant la semaine de régime les niveaux de graisse hépatique (1 H spectroscopie à résonance magnétique (SRM)), de glycogène (13 C SRM) et le volume de contenu gastrique (IRM) ont été mesurés.  Les niveaux de glucose et d’insuline ont été évaluées à intervalles régulières dans la journée par prises de sang.


Les niveaux de glucose et d’insuline maximaux, ainsi que la zone située sous la courbe étaient nettement plus élevés après un repas IGE, comme prévu (p < .05) et encore plus élevés après 7 jours de régime IGE par rapport au début de l’intervention.  La fraction lipidique hépatique a augmenté de façon significative après l’intervention IGE par rapport à l’intervention IGB (analyse de variance à deux facteurs à mesures répétées)


Par rapport au régime IGB, un régime IGE de 7 jours a augmenté le stockage de graisses et de glycogène.  Cette observation pourrait être pertinente dans la prévention et traitement de la stéatose hépatique non alcoolique.

Voici l’abstract original des auteurs de l’article :


To investigate the acute and longer-term effects of low (LGI) versus high glycaemic index (HGI) diets on hepatic fat and glycogen accumulation and related blood measures in healthy volunteers.


Eight healthy men (age 20.1 ± 0.4 years, body mass index 23.0 ± 0.9 kg/m2 ) attended a test day before and after a 7-day macronutrient- and energy-matched HGI or LGI diet, followed by a minimum 4-week wash-out period, and then returned to repeat the intervention with the alternative diet. During test days, participants consumed either an HGI or an LGI test meal corresponding to their diet week, and liver fat [ 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)], glycogen ( 13 C MRS) and gastric content volume (MRI) were measured. Blood samples were obtained regularly throughout the test day to assess plasma glucose and insulin levels.


Plasma glucose and insulin peak values and area under the curve were significantly greater after the HGI test meal compared with the LGI test meal, as expected. Hepatic glycogen concentrations increased more after the HGI test meal ( P < .05) and peak levels were significantly greater after 7 days of HGI dietary intervention compared with those at the beginning of the intervention ( P < .05). Liver fat fractions increased significantly after the HGI dietary intervention compared with the LGI dietary intervention (two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance P ≤ .05).


Compared with an LGI diet, a 1-week HGI diet increased hepatic fat and glycogen stores. This may have important clinical relevance for dietary interventions in the prevention and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

November 22nd, 2017 by admin

L2 – Traduction 3

Energy drinks could weaken the heart

Energy drinks have been around for a few decades, but have really taken off in recent years.  As their name suggests they give a boost of energy, usually due to several psychoactive substances they contain which improve attention and concentration and reduce the feeling of tiredness.  They are not the same thing as sports energy drinks which contain nutritional substances vital for sports performance.

For a while now, public health authorities have been concerned about the effects of excessive consumption of some of the substances in energy drinks, including caffeine and taurine which, in high doses, might lead to heart problems or anxiety.

One by one, institutions are condemning the dangers of excessive consumption of this sort of drink, in particular when they are consumed with alcohol.  Now a team from Friedrich Wilhelm University in Bonn have presented their work at the annual congress of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) in which they demonstrate the effects of a single drink on the heart.

Lower contractile function after one energy drink

“Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a link between the consumption of energy drinks and heart problems,” said Jonas Dörner, director of the study.  “But none has shown the effects they have on heart function.”  So he and his team undertook this job.  Thanks to MRI the scientists were able to observe cardiac function in 15 healthy participants aged 27 ½ on average.  They took images of the heart before and one hour after absorption of an energy drink containing 400mg/100ml of taurine, and 32mg/100ml of caffeine.

When they looked at the images of the heart, the study’s authors observed increased cardiac tension in the left ventricle after consumption of the energy drink.  This part of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and sends it into the aorta which then distributes it to the rest of the body.  However, the researchers did not note any difference in heart rate, blood pressure, nor in the rate of blood pumped by the left ventricle.  In contrast, the heart showed lower contractile function after consumption of the beverage.

“Additional studies are now needed to understand the mechanism and to determine how long it lasts,” the researcher said.  “We also want to evaluate the effect of regular consumption of these energy drinks on heart function.” For the present, the study’s authors recommend that children and the frail abstain from consuming such products.



October 25th, 2017 by admin

Translation 2

Diabetes and endocrine disruptors: beware of chemical pollutants

Many studies have pointed to the role that some chemical products, like bisphenol A (BPA), dioxins and phthalates, play in the rapid increase in the number of people with diabetes.

It all began with diethylstilbestrol, a drug given to pregnant women up until the middle of the seventies, which caused malformations and cancer in some children.  Less well-known is the fact that people exposed in their mothers’ wombs also developed diabetes as adults twice more than average.

Since the worldwide type 2 diabetes epidemic seems difficult to explain by genetics, which have not evolved quickly enough, or by changes in lifestyle (physical inactivity, unbalanced diet) it raised suspicion.  To find out more, researchers carried out laboratory experiments.

They observed that by when they gave very small doses of diethylstilbestrol or BPA of pregnant rats or mice, their offspring became obese then diabetic.  The same thing happened with pesticides like DDT, dioxins or some phthalates, the molecules which are found in plastics.  What these products have in common is that they affect the way hormones work (which is why they are called endocrine disruptors), but they also interfere with the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.

As far as humans are concerned, other studies have increased our suspicions.  First of all there are the consequences of accidental exposure, such as the explosion of a factory in Seveso in Italy in 1976 which produced a giant cloud of dioxins: girls who were contaminated had diabetes three times more frequently than the rest of the population when they were adults.

But the most tangible results come from longitudinal studies from the USA, Canada or Scandinavia, where those most exposed to endocrine disruptors in the past were also those who had most often ended up with metabolic disorders and diabetes.

Beware of these chemical pollutants.  It cannot be denied that they have “obesogenic” or “diabetogenic” properties.  Discussions are being held at European level to limit their use and people’s exposure to them.

Meanwhile, pregnant women at least should take precautions: avoid tins and cans, which are all lined with BPA, as are containers and plastic films in microwave ovens, choose organic food whenever possible, don’t repaint the nursery, and avoid handling pesticides during pregnancy.



October 16th, 2017 by admin

FASM : Lettre de motivation stage

If you need a cover letter to apply for a clerkship or elective abroad, here is an outline you can download and adapt for your own situation.


October 11th, 2017 by admin

Orthophonie UE7.4 Commentaire étude de cohorte

Vous pouvez télécharger ci-dessous un commentaire concernant l’article

McAllister, Jan, Jacqueline Collier, and Lee Shepstone. “The impact of adolescent stuttering and other speech problems on psychological well‐being in adulthood: evidence from a birth cohort study.” International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders 48.4 (2013): 458-468.

October 4th, 2017 by admin

L2SPS traduction 1

Voici une proposition de traduction :

WHO to test antimalarial vaccine in Africa

Mosquirix, which will be tested between 2018 and 2020 does not provide full protection against the plasmodium parasite, but it reduces the number of episodes of malaria.

Kenya, Ghana and Malawi are the three African countries chosen by the World Health Organization to test the antimalarial vaccine called Mosquirix, a UN special agency announced on Monday April 24th.

The WHO aims to vaccinate at least 360 000 children between 2018 and 2020.  Africa is by far the continent with the highest incidence of malaria, representing 92% of the 429 000 deaths from this mosquito-borne disease throughout the world in 2015, according to WHO figures.  Children under 5 make up two-thirds of these deaths.

Developed by a partnership between GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and the NGO Path Malaria Vaccine Initiative, the vaccine, which is the most advanced against Malaria remains of limited effectiveness.  When combined with diagnostic methods, treatment and tried-and-tested preventive measures, such as mosquito nets treated with mosquito repellents, “the vaccine could save tens of thousands of lives in Africa” in the opinion of Matshidiso Moeti, WHO director for Africa.

Reduce episodes by 40%

In particular, the pilot project should allow them to evaluate the effectiveness of the vaccine “in a context of day-to-day use” as well as any possible logistical hurdles, according to Mrs Moeti.  It will be a question of raising the awareness of parents about a new program of vaccinations which differs from the traditional child vaccination program (DTP, measles etc.)  Four doses of the vaccine need to be administered when the child is aged 5 months, 6 months, 7 months and two years old.

Mosquirix, which was approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in July 2015, does not completely prevent infection by the Plasmodium parasite which causes the disease.  It reduces the number of malaria episodes by 40% over a period of at least four and a half years, according to studies carried out on 15000 people between 2009 and 2014.

The program is part of the efforts introduced since the 1990s to eradicate malaria. Between 2000 and 2015, the number of deaths from this disease fell by 62%.  The WHO hopes to have eliminated the disease by 2040.