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September 30th, 2015 by admin

L2 – translation N°1

Voici une proposition de corrigé :

Dark chocolate makes the brain more alert and attentive

A new study shows that eating dark chocolate with 60% cocoa content can stimulate the brain and improve alertness and attention span.

This is great news for chocolate lovers.  A new study published in NeuroRegulation shows that low-sugar dark chocolate can increase the brain’s attention span, and help people get over the afternoon slump.  The analysis, which was partly sponsored by (the) US chocolate company Hershey’s, is the first to examine the effect on the brain, but also the first to use an electroencephalogram to study cognitive ability after eating chocolate.

Larry Stevens, a professor of psychology at the University of Arizona wanted to find out whether people who ate chocolate experienced an immediate stimulant effect. Chocolate has always been recognized as a vasodilator: it dilates the blood vessels and lowers blood pressure in the long term.  But chocolate also contains powerful stimulants.

Useful for those with high blood pressure

In a series of tests, the scientist and his team analysed the brain activity of 122 volunteers aged 18 to 25, asking them to eat dark chocolate with a cocoa content of 60%. The EEG then took images of their brains.  Michelle Montipoli, who was still a student when the study was carried out, ran the EEG test phase which consisted in measuring the sample sizes based on the weight of the participants who were blinded to the study.

The results of the study showed that the brain of those who consume chocolate produced more signs of   vigilance and attention.  Their blood pressure also increased over a short period. “Chocolate is a stimulant and activates the brain in a special way” says Larry Stevens.  “It can increase brain characteristics of attention, and it also significantly affects blood pressure levels.”   When your vision becomes blurred, eat a piece of chocolate!

The advantages of theanine

The most important finding however, was that this chocolate with 60% cacao content contains theanine, an amino acid which is present in green tea, and which acts as a relaxant.  “Theanine is a really fascinating substance which lowers blood pressure and produces what we call alpha waves in the brain that are very calm and peaceful” explains Stevens. “We thought that if chocolate increases very high blood pressure, theanine lowers it, and so perhaps theanine would counteract the short-term hypertensive effects of chocolate.”

Stevens hopes that these results will encourage manufacturers to investigate further and to consider the health benefits of producing a bar of chocolate with high cacao and theanine content.  Millions of patients nationwide suffer from high blood pressure and eating chocolate bars every afternoon could be beneficial.  In this way, their blood pressure could fall to normal levels, and they would be more alert and attentive.

 

 

 

 

November 19th, 2014 by admin

L2IS translation – doc 3

Voici le fruit de vos efforts combinés :

SMS/Text messages to stop smoking

Public Health programs transmitted by mobile phone are effective for stopping smoking.

Encouragement and advice by text message are a useful aid for people who are trying to put an end to their addiction to smoking. According to a review of medical literature, which was published by Cochrane, smokers who benefitted from this type of coaching are in fact more likely to be abstinent after six months.

Researchers analysed the results of five studies on some 9000 people of all ages who wanted to stop smoking and who were registered for programs to stop smoking by cellphone. Every day they were sent several audio or text messages. In one of the studies, (the) participants received short videos showing (the) different ways to stop smoking.

The researchers (Auckland University, NZ) noted that the benefits of using these methods were twice as high as in a control group, even if results vary from one study to another. “Nowadays cellphones are part of daily life, particularly for young adults,” they point out. “It’s a way to transmit public health messages which happens to be effective, and probably cheaper than helplines”.

Gift points

(The) Scientists are calling for new studies (to be carried out) to measure the effectiveness of smartphone applications which are currently being developed. Some are being created by pharmaceutical laboratories. One of them aims, for example, to motivate ex-smokers by informing them in real time of the health benefits of stopping. After inputting information about their smoking habits, subscribers receive daily messages indicating estimated life expectancy gain, improvement in heart attack risk and respiratory capacity, or even financial savings.

Another app reproduces the gaming process in the hope of encouraging quitters to hold fast, by giving them points for each cigarette that they don’t smoke. According to Christophe Leroux, spokesman for the ligue contre le cancer, “these tools are potentially interesting, but they only work for smokers who are already in the process of giving up, mainly those who regularly try to quit.”

October 22nd, 2014 by admin

L2IS Translation – doc 2

Here is the complete text from your collective effort :

Diabetes : a single injection of nano-insulin for 10 days’ peace of mind

This invention from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) with injectable nanoparticles could one day spare patients with type 1 diabetes from monitoring their blood sugar levels and injecting insulin. This development, which was presented in the journal ACS Nano, could maintain a normal blood sugar level for 10 days through a single injection.

Because these nanoparticles are able to detect blood glucose levels and react in real time secreting the necessary quantity of insulin, thereby compensating for the deficient pancreatic islet cells in patients with type 1 diabetes. The blood sugar level is thus kept “under control” and the patients’ quality of life is improved, making them more serene.  At present these patients are obliged to prick themselves several times a day to control their blood sugar levels. In case of hyperglycemia/high blood glucose, patients inject (themselves with) insulin which metabolizes excess sugar.

An injectable nanogel which responds to variations in glucose levels

The MIT team created a solid biocompatible system which reacts quickly to changes in blood sugar levels and is easy to administer. “Thanks to extended release mode, the quantity/amount of insulin (which is) secreted corresponds to the needs of the organism” explains Daniel Anderson, associate professor of chemical engineering at MIT. So it is an insulin delivery system which behaves a bit like an artificial pancreas, automatically detecting glucose levels and secreting insulin as needed. The injectable gel looks a bit like toothpaste and contains a mixture of oppositely charged nanoparticles which attract each other maintaining the gel intact and preventing the particles from drifting away once inside the body. Each nanoparticle contains spheres of dextran, which is a modified polysaccharide charged with an enzyme which transforms glucose into gluconic acid. When the blood sugar levels are high the enzyme produces large quantities of gluconic acid and makes the local environment a little/slightly more acidic, causing the dextran spheres to disintegrate and release insulin.

Just one injection for 10 days of glycemia/blood sugar control

In mice with type 1 diabetes, the researchers show that a single injection of nanogel could maintain blood sugar at normal levels for/over a period of 10 days. The scientists/The team/They are now trying to optimize the particles so that they can react even more quickly to variations in blood glucose levels. They still have to test the particles on humans, using the right dosage.

October 1st, 2014 by admin

L2IS Traduction – doc 1

Votre travail commun :

Pain can be seen in the eyes

Pupil size and contraction when stimulated by light could be good indicators of the intensity of pain a patient feels.

Since eyes are the mirror of the soul, there is nothing surprising after all in being able to perceive pain in them. Reducing the subtlety of a gaze/look to a few easily measured parameters wasn’t (that) simple however. Researchers from the University of Paris-Diderot 7 in association with the French national institute for medical research set themselves this task.

Jean Guglielminotti, an anesthetist, chose to study pupil diameter and contraction intensity after  stimulation by light in an extreme case: childbirth. “We wanted to establish the connection between two parameters, pain of (uterine) contractions during delivery and relief via/by/thanks to epidural analgesia,” he explains. With his team he used cameras to film the pupils of twenty-four women in four distinct situations: before and after epidural, with and without contractions.

Quantifying the effectiveness of painkillers

The results confirm preliminary studies carried out in the nineties according to which the pupil diameter increases with pain. They also established that contraction is more noticeable after stimulation by light when the pain is strong. On the other hand these minor variations are very hard to detect with/barely visible to the naked eye. Highly accurate and extremely fast cameras are indispensable.

Another difficulty was that the researchers did not manage to determine a generic threshold allowing them to confirm/check whether a person is suffering or not. “Nevertheless, each person could be his/her own witness. That/this means that by measuring the evolution of these parameters over time, before and after analgesic treatment for example, it would be possible to establish the variation in pain and thereby know if the treatment has been effective or not,” explains Jean Guglielminotti.

This study, recently published in Anesthesia and Analgesia, could/might therefore enable doctors to judge how effective an analgesic is in a more objective manner. At this time, the only way to gauge a patient’s pain is to ask him to rank it on a scale from one to ten. The scientists also hope to develop a method allowing them to detect pain in people who cannot communicate: young children, comatose patients or those suffering from locked-in syndrome.

January 22nd, 2014 by admin

L2IS – brochure/dépliant

Voici des modèles téléchargeables pour différents logiciels (Word, Publisher, PowerPoint, Photoshop).

FlyerTemplates

Le logiciel libre Scribus vous permet de créer facilement ce type de document.  Vous pouvez télécharger Scribus ici, et voir cette page pour les indications sur comment faire un dépliant avec ce logiciel.

March 20th, 2013 by admin

L2IS grammatical points for checking your work

Points from the last writing session

1.  IF FORMS – 3 possibilities

a.  IF + present → will + ø  + BV

b.  IF + preterit → would + ø  + BV

c.   IF+ pluperfect → would have + PP

2. Permettre

ENABLE SB TO DO STH

ALLOW SB TO DO STH

Recours possible à une forme passive

3. TELL + SB (complément obligatoire) / SAY + ø (pas de complément)

4. ALL & SOME + Plural (or uncountable) / EVERY & EACH + Singular

5.  Particularly / In particular

6.  I ø  agree / I ø disagree

7.  Stop smoking  vs Stop to smoke

 

Points from this session :

1. For vs. to

  • Thank you for coming (regard vers le passé – for + V-ing)
  • I would like you to come. (regard vers l’avenir – to + V)

2. Vouloir que

Vouloir que quelqu’un fasse quelque chose : (pas de that en anglais)

I want you to tell me a story / I would like you to stop that!

3. Go to / Be in

I went to Germany last week (go to) / Last week I was in Germany (be in)

4. Perception & Observation

  • I like to listen to music when I’m working. (écouter)
  • I heard that song on the radio. (entendre)
  • I watch TV every night
  • I saw that programme on TV

Ne jamais utiliser ‘look at’ pour la télévision ou le cinéma.

5. For, Since & During

Pendant

  • During + GN (during the summer holidays)
  • For + duration (for six weeks)

Choix du temps verbal selon le contexte

Depuis

  • Since + date/évènement/GN/GV au prétérit (since the second world war ended)
  • For + durée (for 3 months)

Choix du temps verbal : ‘present perfect’ (have+pp) ou plus-que-parfait (had+pp)

6 . Some common uncountable nouns (emploi au singulier)

  • Information
  • Advice
  • News
  • Progress
  • Knowledge
January 18th, 2013 by admin

L2IS traduction – proposition de corrigé

Eating tomatoes might reduce the risk of having a stroke

Tomatoes, which contain a high amount of lycopene, which is a powerful antioxidant, leads to a lower risk for strokes, according to a Finnish study which was published on October 8 in the US.  The research, which appeared in Neurology , a journal published by the American Academy of Neurology, shows that people with the highest levels of lycopene in their blood were 55% less likely to experience cerebral congestion than those with a lower level of the antioxidant in their blood.

The study was carried out in Finland on 1031 men aged 46-65.  Blood lycopene levels were measured at the beginning of the study, and the participants were monitored for an average of twelve years, during which 67 of them had a cerebrovascular accident.  Among the 258 men with the lowest lycopene levels 25 suffered a stroke, and for the 259 patients with the highest levels only 11 strokes were experienced.

Fruit and Vegetable-rich diet recommended

The results were even more significant when the researchers considered only the strokes caused by a blood clot, and not by hemorrhaging. Now those with higher lycopene levels were shown to have 59% less chances of having a stroke due to a blood clot than those with lower levels.

“This research confirms the virtues of a diet which is rich in fruits and vegetables in lowering the risk of stroke” emphasizes Jouni Karppi from the University of Kuopio, corresponding author of the article.  The study also examined the blood levels for other antioxidants; alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol (a type of vitamin E) and retinol (vitamin A).  They found no link, regardless of the levels, with a reduced risk of cerebral congestion.

November 7th, 2012 by admin

L2IS contrôles écrit et oraux

Le contrôle écrit pour le groupe 1 aura lieu le 5 décembre 2012. Vous pouvez vous munir d’un dictionnaire papier, mais aucun appareil connecté à internet (smartphone, tablette, ordinateur) ne sera autorisé.. Vous aurez à choisir entre une traduction du français vers l’anglais et un sujet d’expression écrite.

Veuillez noter que les dates des oraux se trouvent donc décalées d’une séance et auront lieu le 12 décembre, le 19 décembre et le 16 janvier.

Votre dépliant pourra donc être rendu jusqu’au 16 janvier 2013 (en mains propres s’il vous plait).